InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs) is a suite of models used to map and value the goods and services from nature that sustain and fulfill human life. It helps explore how changes in ecosystems can lead to changes in the flows of many different benefits to people.
InVEST™ is a suite of free, open-source software models used to map and value the goods and services from nature that sustain and fulfill human life. If properly managed, ecosystems yield a flow of services that are vital to humanity, including the production of goods (e.g., food), life-support processes (e.g., water purification), and life-fulfilling conditions (e.g., beauty, opportunities for recreation), and the conservation of options (e.g., genetic diversity for future use). Despite its importance, this natural capital is poorly understood, scarcely monitored, and, in many cases, undergoing rapid degradation and depletion.
Governments, non-profits, international lending institutions, and corporations all manage natural resources for multiple uses and inevitably must evaluate tradeoffs among them. The multi-service, modular design of InVEST provides an effective tool for balancing the environmental and economic goals of these diverse entities.
InVEST enables decision makers to assess quantified tradeoffs associated with alternative management choices and to identify areas where investment in natural capital can enhance human development and conservation. The toolset includes distinct ecosystem service models designed for terrestrial, freshwater, marine, and coastal ecosystems, as well as a number of “helper tools” to assist with locating and processing input data and with understanding and visualizing outputs.
We repackaged the same InVEST models in a new user interface that we are calling the InVEST Workbench. You get all the same functionality with the Workbench as with the "classic" desktop application. We hope the Workbench will be more accessible and more extensible to future enhancements.
InVEST models are spatially-explicit, using maps as information sources and producing maps as outputs. InVEST returns results in either biophysical terms (e.g., tons of carbon sequestered) or economic terms (e.g., net present value of that sequestered carbon).
The spatial resolution of analyses is also flexible, allowing users to address questions at local, regional, or global scales.
InVEST models are based on production functions that define how changes in an ecosystem’s structure and function are likely to affect the flows and values of ecosystem services across a land- or a seascape. The models account for both service supply (e.g., living habitats as buffers for storm waves) and the location and activities of people who benefit from services (e.g., location of people and infrastructure potentially affected by coastal storms).
InVEST models are distributed as a standalone application that is independent of a GIS software. You will need a mapping software such as QGIS or ArcGIS to view your results. Running InVEST effectively does not require knowledge of Python programming, but it does require basic to intermediate skills in GIS software.
The tool is modular in the sense that you do not have to model all the ecosystem services listed, but rather can select only those of interest.
When referring to analyses or data products that were produced with InVEST, please cite the use of InVEST and include a hyperlink (e.g., This analysis used InVEST®: https://naturalcapitalproject.stanford.edu/software/invest).The trademark symbol (®) should be used at the first mention of InVEST. The full citation for papers, reports, etc. is available here. You are also welcome to use the InVEST logo in line with our Trademark and Logo Use Policy.
In a rapidly urbanizing world, the design of cities will determine the health and wellbeing of billions of people. Urban InVEST provides tools to show how incorporating the value of nature into urban design can deliver better outcomes for people and the planet.
Need Help? Check out the resources on our software and support page.